By Brooke Faulkner, freelance writer; @faulknercreek
Picture a long day — one that’s longer than most. Maybe you wake up early, have a checklist of morning tasks to do, then head off to catch a flight. Once you land, you have to change, make your way to a work conference, give a speech, and mingle for an hour. Back at the hotel, you unpack, shower, and work some more until 1 a.m., when you can finally sleep.
Exhausting, right? Now imagine that for that entire day, you’re on your feet and working. There’s no flight to relax on and no mingling with people for an hour. During that time, your main goal is to take care of others; you’re solely responsible for their health and well-being. How exhausted would you be then? This is what doctors and nurses go through, and for anyone outside of the healthcare industry, it’s nearly impossible to envision what a week, or even a shift, is like.
What is healthcare provider fatigue?
Healthcare providers work incredibly long hours. Nurses often work 12-hour night shifts — sometimes even longer if there’s a nursing shortage. Doctors may work for double that, especially when they’re new to the job. Indeed, medical residents in the United States can work up to 28 hours in one shift. Without proper rest and sleep, fatigue and burnout can set in. This can impact the individual’s health and well-being, and it can also have negative consequences for patients.
There’s another type of burnout, too: compassion fatigue, a central problem to balancing work and personal life as a nurse. This happens when healthcare providers are emotionally or physically distressed from forming emotional connections with their patients. This often happens when dealing with patients who are going through a serious medical event, like a trauma or a chronic illness. Creating a work-life balance is one of the best ways to combat compassion fatigue.
Consequences of healthcare provider fatigue
When healthcare providers don’t have enough time to rest and sleep, it can result in negative patient outcomes, such as inaccuracies when administering drugs, injuries from accidental needle sticks, surgical errors, and poor operation of medical equipment. Other signs of burnout include:
- Impaired cognition and learning ability
- Low career engagement
- Negative feelings and moods
- Poor communication skills
- Poor sense of achievement
- Slow reaction time
The good news is that burnout is manageable. Healthcare organizations have to treat burnout before it becomes a problem. Once they do so, job performance and the number of errors in patient care will both be improved.
6 ways to improve healthcare provider fatigue
Fatigue isn’t a random occurrence; it’s the culmination of patterns related to scheduling disorganization and poor organizational policies. Since you can point to specific causes of fatigue, the problem can also be fixed with personal and organizational changes.
By Brooke Faulkner, freelance writer; @faulknercreek.
Advancements in medical technology grant modern patients access to better care than ever before, but they also come with serious privacy concerns. Widespread data breaches in the realm of digital health records led to the implementation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in 1996, and it’s a relevant as ever in the present day.
The federal government takes HIPAA violations extremely seriously, and fines for data breaches can reach up to $1.5 million per violation category, per year. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office for Civil Rights is responsible for enforcing HIPAA. The stiff penalties for violations have led to a decrease in data breaches in recent years. Forbes reports that HIPAA violations decreased three-fold in the years between 2014 and 2018, citing data from HHS.
In our current healthcare climate, patient privacy and data protection go hand in hand. HIPAA is meant to protect sensitive patient medical records while adhering to ethical principles. With the rise of alternate treatments like medical marijuana and CBD, which are illegal or regulated in many states, ensuring patient privacy is more important than ever. Here’s how patient privacy and ethics intersect in the age of technology.
Healthcare administrators, ethics and privacy
The role of the healthcare administrator is a complex one that merges patient care and bureaucratic involvement. Healthcare administrators are a major player in the front lines of HIPAA compliance. One of the biggest ethical dilemmas of the role is maintaining each patient’s right to privacy and autonomy. Administrators often play a big part in ensuring that a facility properly adheres to HIPAA and other relevant laws and regulations.
Of course, ensuring patient privacy only goes so far in certain situations. A healthcare administrator may break confidentiality under particular circumstances, such as when patients may harm themselves or others. Cultivating a thorough understanding of applicable laws and knowing when to break confidentiality is integral to maintaining a balance of patient privacy and ethics.
It may not always be easy to determine if or when confidential information should be shared. A psychiatrist in Singapore was recently fined $50,000 for breaching medical confidentiality by sharing confidential patient information with an unauthorized party. A man posing as a patient’s husband contacted the psychiatrist, claiming that his “wife” was suicidal. The psychiatrist had previously determined that his patient was at risk of self-harm, and he wrote a memo for the man that included confidential medical information. The man turned out to be the patient’s brother rather than her husband, and he did not have legal access to the patient’s medical information.
In this case, while the psychiatrist was within his rights to share information related to his patient’s potential for self-harm, he did not verify the identity of the family member who ultimately received the confidential medical information. Thus, the patient filed a complaint with the Singapore Medical Council (SMC). The SMC handed down the stiff penalty and censure as a form of “general deterrence” for similar situations in the future, and healthcare administrators should take note of the decision.
The role of the medical provider
The topics of patient privacy and ethics form the backbone of numerous industry jobs, from healthcare administrators to nurses and medical assistants. In many cases, medical assistants are directly responsible for administrative tasks, including the collecting and handling of patient data. Because of this fact, a medical assistant must ensure that he or she adheres to all pertinent privacy regulations and take the utmost care to keep patient data safe. Nurses also come in contact with sensitive patient data and should take similar precautions to avoid a potential HIPAA violation.
Ensuring patient data privacy starts at the training level for medical assistants. Best practices for maintaining electronic patient medical records is a key focus in any assistant’s education, but it’s particularly important for those interested in pharmacology. As a student, a medical assistant should be trained in HIPAA and similar regulations in order to develop a keen understanding of what’s at stake. A HIPAA breach could result in fines, but guilty parties may also be stripped of their individual licenses as well, causing many to lose their job and be barred from future employment in the healthcare industry.
While not all HIPAA violations result in termination, repercussions for individuals depend on the policy of the healthcare facility or organization and the severity of the violation. In 2018, a Texas nurse was fired after violating HIPAA regulations by posting sensitive patient data on social media. While posted information did not include a patient name, it contained specific details about the patient’s condition, and the nurse’s social media profile listed the facility in which she worked. Her employer, Texas Children’s Hospital, determined that the violation was severe enough to warrant firing her.
By Brooke Faulkner, freelance writer; @faulknercreek.
Being rushed to the hospital is a traumatic event in a child’s life, yet a staggering 25.5 million children are taken to the emergency room each year. The reasons for these ER trips range from poisonings and infections to mental health conditions and diabetes, plus a host of terrifying injuries and baffling disorders. In addition to emergencies, there are children who make frequent visits to hospitals or stay there for weeks on end to receive ongoing treatment for chronic conditions.
Children today are much more tech-savvy than in the past — they’re getting smartphones before their age hits double digits. Many hospital administrators take tech trends into consideration in order to make the overall experience better for patients and their families. Even the processes and workflows that hospital staff follow now stress the patients’ experience. Technology is also helping doctors and surgeons perform their jobs more efficiently and safely while offering quality healthcare to more families than before.
Faster care for injuries
The last thing you expect when heading to a birthday party is leaving with your child in an ambulance. Bounce houses and similar structures are responsible for a number of injuries, and they have been for a long time. Injuries can happen at any time, and hospital staff needs to be prepared to handle them to ensure optimal health outcomes.
In more dire circumstances, faster care is necessary to save the lives of those injured. In the wake of natural disasters, as local leaders scramble to help their respective communities find stability, faster healthcare processes are required to protect the lives of those affected.
Some hospitals are using technology that tells patients the wait times at nearby emergency rooms. This can help parents decide where to take their child for the fastest attention possible. If there’s no hospital that can treat an injury at the moment, the parent can opt to visit their primary doctor or another emergency clinic.
By Brooke Faulkner, freelance writer; @faulknercreek.
We look towards technology to help solve many of the issues that plague the world today. From healthcare to environmental degradation, innovation has led the way in developing solutions. The spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is a worldwide issue and one that researchers are looking to alleviate.
A rise in numbers
According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), there are 19.7 million new sexually transmitted infections reported each year. This report accounts for number of infections, not individuals, as some individuals may have contracted an infection more than once or different types of infections in a single calendar year. The CDC found in a four year study, between 2013 and 2017, the number of those infected with syphilis nearly doubled, gonorrhea cases increased by 67 percent, and chlamydia infections are at record highs.
There also appears to be a correlation between certain demographics and the number of those infected. Populations with lack of access to healthcare, as well as those who live below the poverty line are at a higher risk for infection. Gay and bisexual men continue to be at an increased risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection, including HIV and AIDS — this demographic accounted for 85 percent of all cases in 2015.
There has been much speculation as to why the rise of STDs is occurring, however, no one can say for sure. In heterosexual relationships, the blame has been put upon the use of long-term birth controls with a main focus of avoiding unwanted pregnancy as opposed to STD prevention. The number of seniors contracting gonorrhea are also rising, which is hypothesized to be a result of seniors being more active later in life as a result of longer lifespans. Since it has been found that the numbers are rising, researchers are redirecting focus to make a plan on how to prevent STDs from continuing on this increasing track.
Many people are uncomfortable with how much of their personal information is being taken and shared without their knowledge or consent. While taking precautionary measures, such as covering your computer camera when not in use and not sharing your location on your smartphone, may provide you with a sense of comfort, understand that some companies are using this information to pinpoint STD outbreaks.
Similarly to predicting earthquakes or volcanoes, researchers are looking at trigger points, in this case search terms, to predict STD outbreaks. Tech companies, such as Google, are helping to monitor STD rates and work toward preventing STDs. Google is collecting the location of search terms in association with STD symptoms and comparing it with diagnosis data from local healthcare providers to draw a correlation between the two.
If a rise in the number of times the search term for “vaginal discharge” and the diagnosis of chlamydia occur in a concentrated area, it alerts health professionals of a potential outbreak. This enables medical practitioners to react appropriately by informing the public and preparing their clinics accordingly.
Sex and apps
Nearly all aspects of personal information is shared on social media nowadays — where you are vacationing, what you’re eating, who you’re with, and your life goals and ambitions. Software developers are hoping to engage individuals by creating apps to share sexual health information. Forums, websites, social media channels and apps have been created as a safe place to ask questions, gather information, and seek out centers to get tested.
STD Triage is a new app that has been developed to maintain anonymity for those who are fearful of going to a doctor about a rash or bump that may be nothing more than an ingrown hair. The app charges a $40 fee to examine photos taken by the user and then offer their recommendation on whether or not to seek out healthcare or schedule an appointment with their dermatologist. The app is not run by medical professionals and should only be taken as opinion and advice, not matter of fact.
There are apps to help match people of similar interests, as well as those to help find a more casual encounter. To counterbalance the scale, some people feel that there should be a way to protect themselves against contracting an STD through some of these apps. It would take both partners being willing to divulge personal medical history, which is not something that everyone is willing to do before a first date.
Although, for those who have tested positive for lifelong diseases such as HIV and AIDS, there has been a positive response in the development of apps to seek one another out. We can expect to see the sexual health culture continue to shift into the mainstream in the future.
By Brooke Faulkner, freelance writer; @faulknercreek.
Up to a fifth of patients with serious conditions are first misdiagnosed, and that leaves tremendous consequences. With the help of healthcare technology, doctors are able to diagnosis patients more effectively and easier. For example, migrating patient data from paper to online, known as electronic health records (EHRs), has greatly aided the medical world. Technology, especially using artificial intelligence and predictive analytics, has enabled doctors to make faster, more accurate diagnoses, and thus provide better care.
The volume of big data
Duquesne University estimated there to be 150 exabytes of healthcare data collected in 2011. Four years later, they reported about 83 percent of doctors had transitioned from using paper to electronic records. By now, with the ubiquity of the cloud, these numbers have assuredly gone up.
Massive amounts of data make predictive analytics possible, as trends can be spotted and analyzed. By spotting patterns, diagnosis of a disease becomes easier even for doctors unfamiliar with a specific disease or symptom. Uploading symptoms allows a computer to compare records and identify symptoms comorbid of other problems. This allows even specialized doctors to recognize issues outside of their field. Medical mistakes lead to the death of some 440,000 people each year; while misdiagnosis is only a part of this number, correct diagnosis and treatment will reduce it.
Big data can even be collected in the form of PDFs as part of telemedicine. A doctor can send PDFs to patients as part of a poll or survey or simply to collect symptom information from the patient. From there, data entered in the PDF can be collected and analyzed, generating patient data or feedback for the doctor.
Google flu trends
Google ran what can best be called an experiment from 2008 to 2014. Using artificial intelligence, the search engine recorded flu-related searches in an attempt to predict the severity of an outbreak, as well as the affected geographical area.
It was a flawed model, and tried to use big data as a replacement, rather than a supplement, for traditional data collection and analysis. It completely missed a flu outbreak in 2013, the data off by a massive 140 percent, and Google Flu Trends ended its public version in 2014. The algorithm monitoring flu-related search terms was simply not sophisticated enough to provide accurate results. While new data is no longer available to the public, historical data remains available to the Centers for Disease Control and other research groups. It’s possible that once the algorithm and predictive analysis is capable, the program will continue.
By Brooke Faulkner
The phrase “medical tourism” has been coined to describe the millions of Americans who are traveling across the globe to have surgery or other medical procedures performed. According to Visa and Oxford Economics, this trend is growing at a rate of 25 percent per year.
Healthcare in the U.S. has become increasingly expensive — to the point that some necessary treatments are entirely out of reach for the average American. Combine that with rising health insurance premiums and high deductibles, and it’s no wonder 1.4 million people traveled abroad last year to get the medical care they needed.
Additionally, many countries offer more advanced technological solutions and experimental treatments that are not yet available within the U.S. Better, more advanced care that is less expensive sounds like an attractive reason why so many Americans are taking advantage of overseas healthcare.
The reason these countries can offer above-standard care for less money is that the doctors are paid less and hospitals charge less than in America. Plus, the insurance costs are a fraction of U.S. expenses. The result is that some U.S. health insurance companies now support overseas treatment and even pay for the travel along with the cost of the procedures.
Talk of improvements to the U.S. healthcare system becomes popular during an election year, but unfortunately, things don’t seem to improve; they continue to get more expensive for the average American.
The Affordable Care Act of 2010 was in part meant to discourage traveling outside the country for healthcare by making it easier for all Americans to be able to afford their own treatment. Unfortunately forcing everyone to have health insurance only increased health insurance premiums, hospitals and physician fees and complicated the issue making affordable healthcare further out of reach.
U.S. Medical Technology: How Does It Measure Up?
In the U.S., healthcare professionals have a number of factors to consider when implementing technology. They must consider cost, leadership buy-in and other keys to successful implementation. Unfortunately, because of the excessive investment cost for medical technology implementation here in the U.S., America is sorely lagging behind countries like Canada, China, India and England. These countries have access to bigger budgets, fewer government bottlenecks, and a more streamlined approval process to get medicine and devices out into the market faster.
The United Kingdom, China and Canada are all investing serious money in biotechnology and experimenting with pharmaceutical cures that are years beyond the technology produced by U.S. companies. Lawmakers in those countries are invested in supporting and funding new technologies to lead the pack in innovation and medical history.
The difference is that in many of these locales, the government solidly backs the research and development of medical technology solutions rather than private companies. In the U.S. most of the advancements come from the private sector and are not government sanctioned or funded.
By Brooke Faulkner, freelance writer, @faulknercreek.
The proliferation of wearable mobile-connected devices has done a lot of good for people trying to lead healthier lives. People are able to gather data about their sleep to help them get better rest, track insomnia, stress, and exercise, and keep up to date on their own daily routines and health.
Many of the devices exist not just as trackers but as ways for people to motivate themselves to exercise more, go to bed at more regular times, and other little things that slip by in the daily grind.
Healthcare Data in the Modern Age
Sleep is absolutely related to health. Many health issues affect our sleep or are caused by issues with sleeping. A number of medical professionals are interested in how, when, and for how long we sleep. These days, that information is stored in digital medical records, which have a number of advantages. Specialists can access information far more quickly and easily to help us with medical problems.
There are, however, disadvantages to medical records being easily accessible and easily updatable. Privacy and security have become major concerns for healthcare providers, as the records contain our most sensitive information, which proves highly valuable to hackers.
Official medical records, however, are just the tip of the iceberg. We use the internet not only as a go-to for advice about medical conditions, but as a method to voluntarily record all sorts of data about us. Recording, storing, and tracking sleep data on our personal devices gives us a lot of power to “do it yourself” when it comes to preventative health and tracking changes in our sleep patterns. This ease of use, however, comes with a cost. It’s not all about sinister hackers, either; that data can be used in all sorts of ways that are, while not outright damaging, at least partially invasive.
Wearables, Bluetooth and Data
Tech companies are working on more advanced ways to use high-tech devices to track our sleep. These include wearables and even devices that don’t need to be attached to the body. The amount of information gathered, and its accuracy, varies greatly by device. The Bluetooth connectivity and the ability to store, track, and share the data the devices collect are parts of their appeal.
The number and type of people who benefit from this information is vast. Sleep disorders are a common side effect of other medical disorders, and managing sleep is an important part of living a healthy lifestyle, especially for people who are at greater risk for certain conditions.
You don’t need to have or be at risk for medical complications to make use of sleep data, however. There are plenty of careers in the U.S. which require people to work long or unconventional hours. Night shifts and long shifts, such as those worked by nurses, can cause havoc with the circadian rhythms that regulate our sleep. This can create complications for otherwise completely healthy people. Being able to self-regulate with the help of wearable devices is a great advantage.
By Brooke Faulkner
There’s no question that the forward march of medical technology has improved personal and public health, creating lasting positive change for humanity. New technology, however, sometimes comes with risks. While those risks rarely outweigh the potential advantages, fully exploring and preparing for them is an important responsibility.
New Solutions Pose New Dangers
One demonstration of this relationship occurred as we were developing medical devices meant to be used inside the human body. Using medical devices internally presents the problem of contamination from external sources, and we learned that killing bacteria isn’t enough — specifically, we discovered that the endotoxins produced by dead bacteria can also be harmful.
That particular issue, we’ve already solved. It is, however, an excellent example of how new benefits can present dangers that we hadn’t contended with before: our ability to kill bacteria presented a new problem as our technology continued to improve, and we started putting medical devices inside the body. We realized that some types of dead bacteria are still dangerous, and that our sterilization standards had to improve.
This relationship between new advancements and new risks continues today, although it takes different forms. The hot-button issue these days has more to do with data and privacy, which while not directly health related, has significant risks when breached.
Healthcare Data Innovations and Breakthroughs
Our ability to collect, process, and draw conclusions from ever larger amounts of data has been a huge boon to the medical industry.
- Asset tracking is the process of using fluid, regularly updated databases to keep track of physical assets and tools at a facility. However, it’s useful in many more ways than inventory management. Scanning and mobile device technology allows an asset to be kept track of at every point in its journey, from storage to use.
This method of tracking and categorizing physical assets, as well as patients, can be very useful in preventing serious accidents caused by miscommunication. Even life-threatening mistakes, such as wrong-site surgery, can be prevented by good data management. Timing, types, and amounts of medication can also be streamlined with this process, which could for example automatically sweep a database for potential adverse reactions or conflicts before a drug is prescribed to a patient.
- Giving doctors access to a digital database that covers a patient’s entire history is another advantage that advanced data technology can provide. These databases can be populated with information from several different sources, including family doctors, specialists, and even self-reported data. A doctor can have access to the notes of their peers in the medical community quickly and easily, vastly improving the care that a patient receives.
- From a management point of view, new data technologies allow administrators to streamline the operations of their offices and hospitals. Understanding how to best utilize staff for a balance of efficiency quality has a direct impact on the health of patients.
- Predictive analytics are another area which can be hugely beneficial to the healthcare field. Basically, it’s an automated process that does much of the work a doctor does already: look at a patient’s history, compare it with current medical knowledge, and use it to make predictions about that patient’s future needs. The difference is the scale at which it can be performed when automated and the sheer volume of up-to-date data that can be included. Doctors can’t be expected to keep up to date with every new study, but a database can be populated with that information to compare against.
On both a wide and individual scale, the applications of our improving data technology are saving lives and improving the quality of life of patients.
All this integration, however, comes with those pesky risks. Not nearly enough to warrant halting progress but enough to need heavy consideration.
Cybersecurity in Healthcare
The problem with health data is it’s often some of the most private and consequential data about human beings. That, unfortunately, makes it some of the most profitable to identity thieves, and even advertisers with few scruples. Healthcare data can be held to ransom, used for identity theft, or even insurance fraud. As DeVry University notes: “Your name, address, date of birth and Social Security number are all in one convenient location — ripe for stealing. Cybercriminals can take your private health information (PHI) and sell it for high prices. In fact, stolen medical records sell for 10 to 20 times more than stolen credit card numbers.”